Syneresis- IV

Cooking temperature is a major factor that determines the rate of syneresis. Cooking temperature varies from ~31C (Camembert) to 52-55C (Emmental or Parmigiano-Reggiano) and temperature must match the starter. Acid production by lactococci is slowed ~35C and many strains are killed >40C (which is very close to the Cheddar cooking temperature of ~38.5C). Thermophilic starters, while surviving high temperatures do not gro >~52C so syneresis in Swiss cheese (cooked 54-55C) is mainly due to heat; starter grows as curd cools.

Cooking is normally achieved using a jacketed vat although "curd washing" (removal of perhaps 30-40% of the whey and replacement with hot water) is used in Dutch-type cheeses. In addition to increasing the temperature, curd washing reduces the lactose levels and helps to control the final pH of the cheese.

The rate of cooking is important. If it is too fast in the early stages, case hardening can result.